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Chevrinais, M., Johanson, Z., Trinajstic, K., Long, J., Morel, C., Renaud, C. B. and Cloutier, R., in press. Evolution of vertebrate postcranial complexity: axial skeleton regionalization and paired appendages in a Devonian jawless fish. Nature, , .

Coates, M. I., Gess, R. W., Finarelli, J. A., Criswell, K. E. and Tietjen, K., in press. A symmoriiform chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes. Palaeontology, , .

Dupret, V., Sanchez, S., Goujet, D., Tafforeau, P. and Ahlberg, P. E., in press. A primitive placoderm sheds light on the origin of the jawed vertebrate face. Nature, , .

Field, D. J., Gauthier, J. A., King, B. L., Pisani, D., Lyson, T. R. and Peterson, K. J., in press. Toward consilience in reptile phylogeny: miRNAs support an archosaur, not lepidosaur, affinity for turtles. Evolution & Development, , .

Fischer, J., Licht, M., Kriwet, J., Schneider, J. W., Buchwitz, M. and Bartsch, P., in press. Egg capsule morphology provides new information about the interrelationships of chondrichthyan fishes. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, , .

Heimberg, A. M., Cowper-Sallari, R., Semon, M., Donoghue, P. C. J. and Peterson, K. J., in press. microRNAs reveal the interrelationships of hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes and the nature of the ancestral vertebrate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, , .

King, B., Qiao, T., Lee, M. S. Y., Zhu, M. and long, J. A., in press. Bayesian morphological clock methods resurrect placoderm monophyly and reveal rapid early evolution in jawed vertebrates. Systematic Biology, , .

Lundgren, M. and Blom, H., in press. Phylogenetic relationships of the cyathaspidids (Heterostraci). GFF, , .

Marrama, G., Klug, S., De Vos, J. and Kriwet, J., in press. Anatomy, relationships and palaeobiogeographic implications of the first Neogene holomorphic stingray (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the early Miocene of Sulawesi, Indonesia, SE Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, , .

McCoy, V. E., Saupe, E. E., Lamsdell, J. C., Tarhan, L. G., McMahon, S., Lidgard, S., Mayer, P., Whalen, C. D., Soriano, C., Finney, L., Vogt, S., Clark, E. G., Anderson, R. P., Petermann, H., Locatelli, E. R. and Briggs, D. E. G., in press. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate. Nature, , .

Pradel, A., Maisey, J. G., Tafforeau, P., Mapes, R. H. and Mallatt, J., in press. A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches. Nature, , .

Randle, E. and Sansom, R. S., in press. Exploring phylogenetic relationships of Pteraspidiformes heterostracans (stem-Gnathostomes) using continuous and discrete characters. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, , .

Tinn, O. and Marss, T., in press. The earliest osteostracan Kalanaspis delectabilis gen. et sp. nov. from the mid-Aeronian (mid-Llandovery, lower silurian) of Estonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, , .

Zhu, M., Yu, X.-B., Ahlberg, P. E., Choo, B., Lu, J., Qiao, T., Qu, Q.-M., Zhao, W.-J., Jia, L.-T., Blom, H. and Zhu, Y.-A., in press. A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. Nature, , .


Clement, A. M., King, B., Giles, S., Choo, B., Ahlberg, P. E., Young, G. C. and Long, J. A., 2018. Neurocranial anatomy of an enigmatic Early Devonian fish sheds light on early osteichthyan evolution. eLife, 7, e34349.

Coates, M. I., Finarelli, J. A., Sansom, I. J., Andreev, P. S., Criswell, K. E., Tietjen, K., Rivers, M. L. and La Riviere, P. J., 2018. An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285, 20172418.


Choo, B., Zhu, M., Qu, Q.-M., Yu, X.-B., Jia, L.-T. and Zhao, W.-J., 2017. A new osteichthyan from the late Silurian of Yunnan, China. PLOS ONE, 12, e0170929.

Glinskiy, V., 2017. Phylogenetic relationships of psammosteid heterostracans (Pteraspidiformes), Devonian jawless vertebrates. Biological Communications, 62, 219-243.

Randle, E. and Sansom, R., 2017. Phylogenetic relationships of the 'higher heterostracans' (Heterostraci: Pteraspidiformes and Cyathaspididae), extinct jawless vertebrates. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 181, 910-926.


Bertozzi, T., Lee, M. S. Y. and Donnellan, S. C., 2016. Stingray diversification across the end-Cretaceous extinctions. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74, 379-390.

Burrow, C., den Blaauwen, J., Newman, M. and Davidson, R., 2016. The diplacanthid fishes (Acanthodii, Diplacanthiformes, Diplacanthidae) from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19, 1-83.

Qiao, T., King, B., Long, J. A., Ahlberg, P. E. and Zhu, M., 2016. Early gnathostome phylogeny revisited: multiple method consensus. PLOS ONE, 11, e0163157.

Zhu, M., Ahlberg, P. E., Pan, Z.-H., Zhu, Y., Qian, T., Zhao, W.-J., Jia, L.-T. and Lu, J., 2016. A Silurian maxillate placoderm illuminates jaw evolution. Science, 354, 334-336.


Giles, S., Friedman, M. and Brazeau, M. D., 2015. Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature, 520, 82-85.

Giles, S., Darras, L., Clement, G., Blieck, A. and Friedman, M., 2015. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 282, 20151485.

Rucklin, M., Long, J. A. and Trinajstic, K., 2015. A new selenosteid arthrodire ('Placodermi') from the Late Devonian of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 35, e908896.

Scott, B. R. and Wilson, M. V. H., 2015. The Superciliaspididae, a new family of Early Devonian Osteostraci (jawless vertebrates) from northern Canada, with two new genera and three new species. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 13, 167-187.


Conway Morris, S. and Caron, J.-B., 2014. A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America. Nature, 512, 419-422.


Claeson, K. M., Underwood, C. J. and Ward, D. J., 2013. Tingitanius tenuimandibulus, a new platyrhinid batoid from the Turonian (Cretaceous) of Morocco and the cretaceous radiation of the Platyrhinidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33, 1019-1036.


Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., Guinot, G. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., 2012. Evolutionary history of the devilrays (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from fossil and morphological inference. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166, 132-159.

Blom, H., 2012. New birkeniid anaspid from the Lower Devonian of Scotland and its phylogenetic implications. Palaeontology, 55, 641-652.


Pradel, A., Tafforeau, P., Maisey, J. G. and Janvier, P., 2011. A new Paleozoic Symmoriiformes (Chondrichthyes) from the Late Carboniferous of Kansas (USA) and cladistic analysis of early chondrichthyans. PLOS ONE, 6, e24938.

Rucklin, M., 2011. First selenosteid placoderms from the eastern anti-Atlas of Morocco; osteology, phylogeny and palaeogeographical implications. Palaeontology, 54, 25-62.

Turner, S. and Burrow, C. J., 2011. A Lower Carboniferous xenacanthiform shark from Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31, 241-257.


Carr, R. K. and Hlavin, W. J., 2010. Two new species of Dunkleosteus Lehman, 1956, from the Ohio Shale Formation (USA, Famennian) and the Kettle Point Formation (Canada, Upper Devonian), and a cladistic analysis of the Eubrachythoraci (Placodermi, Arthrodira). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 159, 195-222.
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Claeson, K. M., O'Leary, M. A., Roberts, E. M., Sissoko, F., Bouare, M., Tapanila, L., Goodwin, D. and Gottfried, M. D., 2010. First Mesozoic record of the stingray Myliobatis wurnoensis from Mali and a phylogenetic analysis of Myliobatidae incorporating dental characters. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55, 655-674.

Klug, S., 2010. Monophyly, phylogeny and systematic position of the Synechodontiformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii). Zoologica Scripta, 39, 37-49.

Sansom, R. S., Freedman, K., Gabbott, S. E., Aldridge, R. J. and Purnell, M. A., 2010. Taphonomy and affinity of an enigmatic Silurian vertebrate, Jamoytius kerwoodi White. Palaeontology, 53, 1393-1409.

Zhu, M., Wang, J.-Q. and Wang, S.-T., 2010. A new antarctaspid arthrodire (placoderm fish) from the Lower Devonian of Guangxi, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48, 101-110.


Dupret, V., Zhu, M. and Wang, J.-Q., 2009. The morphology of Yujiangolepis liujingensis (Placodermi, Arthrodira) from the Pragian of Guangxi (south China) and its phylogenetic significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157, 70-82.

Grogan, E. D. and Lund, R., 2009. Two new iniopterygians (Chondrichthyes) from the Mississippian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana with evidence of a new form of chondrichthyan neurocranium. Acta Zoologica, 90 (Supplement 1), 134-151.
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Jeong, C.-H. and Nakabo, T., 2009. Hongeo, a new skate genus (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), with redescription of the type species. Ichthyological Research, 56, 140-155.

Khonsari, R. H., Li, B., Vernier, P., Northcutt, R. G. and Janvier, P., 2009. Agnathan brain anatomy and craniate phylogeny. Acta Zoologica, 90 (Supplement 1), 52-68.
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Sansom, R. S., 2009. Phylogeny, classification and character polarity of the Osteostraci (Vertebrata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 7, 95-115.

Sansom, R. S., 2009. Endemicity and palaeobiogeography of the Osteostraci and Galeaspida: a test of scenarios of gnathostome evolution. Palaeontology, 52, 1257-1273.

Trinajstic, K. and Dennis-Bryan, K., 2009. Phenotypic plasticity, polymorphism and phylogeny within placoderms. Acta Zoologica, 90 (Supplement 1), 83-102.

Wilson, M. V. H. and Marss, T., 2009. Thelodont phylogeny revisited, with inclusion of key scale-based taxa. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 58, 297-310.


Pernegre, V. N. and Elliott, D. K., 2008. Phylogeny of the Pteraspidiformes (Heterostraci), Silurian-Devonian jawless vertebrates. Zoologica Scripta, 37, 391-403.


Coates, M. I. and Gess, R. W., 2007. A new reconstruction of Onychoselache traquairi, comments on early chondrichthyan pectoral girdles and hybodontiform phylogeny. Palaeontology, 50, 1421-1446.

Gai, Z.-K. and Zhu, M., 2007. First discovery of Huananaspidae from the Xishancun Formation (Lochkovian, Devonian) of Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 45, 1-12.
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Trinajstic, K., Marshall, C., Long, J. and Bifield, K., 2007. Exceptional preservation of nerve and muscle tissues in Late Devonian placoderm fish and their evolutionary implications. Biology Letters, 3, 197-200.

Zhu, M. and Gai, Z.-K., 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of galeaspids (Agnatha) (2). Frontiers in Biology China, 2, 151-169.


Gess, R. W., Coates, M. I. and Rubidge, B. S., 2006. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature, 443, 981-984.

Zhu, M. and Gai, Z.-K., 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of galeaspids (Agnatha). Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 44, 1-27.
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Gai, Z.-K. and Zhu, M., 2005. A new genus of eugaleaspids (Galeaspida, Agnatha) from the Silurian of Anji, Zhejiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43, 165-174.

Gai, Z.-K., Zhu, M. and Zhao, W.-J., 2005. New material of eugaleaspids from the Silurian of Changxing, Zhejiang, China, with a discussion of the eugaleaspid phylogeny. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43, 61-75.
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Shimada, K., 2005. Phylogeny of lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) and the contribution of dental characters to lamniform systematics. Paleontological Research, 9, 55-72.

Wickstrom, L. M. and Donoghue, P. C. J., 2005. Cladograms, phylogenies and the veracity of the conodont fossil record. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 73, 185-218.
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de Carvalho, M. R., Maisey, J. G. and Grande, L., 2004. Freshwater stingrays of the Green River Formation of Wyoming (Early Eocene), with the description of a new genus and species and an analysis of its phylogenetic relationships (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 284, 1-136.

Gonzalez-Isais, M. and Dominguez, H. M. M., 2004. Comparative anatomy of the superfamily Myliobatoidea (Chondrichthyes) with some comments on phylogeny. Journal of Morphology, 262, 517-535.

Hampe, O., Aboussalam, Z. S. and Becker, R. T., 2004. Omalodus teeth (Elasmobranchii: Omalodontida) from the northern Gondwana margin (middle Givetian: ansatus conodont Zone, Morocco). In Arratia, G., Wilson, M. V. H. and Cloutier, R. (eds.) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, p487-504.

Hanke, G. F. and Wilson, M. V. H., 2004. New teleostome fishes and acanthodian systematics. In Arratia, G., Wilson, M. V. H. and Cloutier, R. (eds.) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, p189-216.

Lund, R. and Grogan, E. D., 2004. Five new euchondrocephalan Chondrichthyes from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Serpukhovian, Namurian E2b) of Montana, USA. In Arratia, G., Wilson, M. V. H. and Cloutier, R. (eds.) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, p505-531.

Wilson, M. V. H. and Marss, T., 2004. Toward a phylogeny of the thelodonts. In Arratia, G., Wilson, M. V. H. and Cloutier, R. (eds.) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, p95-108.


Gill, H. S., Renaud, C. B., Chapleau, F., Mayden, R. L. and Potter, I. C., 2003. Phylogeny of living parasitic lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) based on morphological data. Copeia, 2003, 687-703.

Mallatt, J. and Chen, J.-Y., 2003. Fossil sister group of craniates: predicted and found. Journal of Morphology, 258, 1-31.

Shu, D.-G., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Zhang, Z.-F., Yasui, K., Janvier, P., Chen, L., Zhang, X.-L., Liu, J.-N., Li, Y. and Liu, H.-Q., 2003. Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys. Nature, 421, 526-529.
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Hou, X.-G., Aldridge, R. J., Siveter, D. J., Siveter, D. J. and Feng, X.-H., 2002. New evidence on the anatomy and phylogeny of the earliest vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 269, 1865-1869.


Adnet, S. and Cappetta, H., 2001. A palaeontological and phylogenetical analysis of squaliform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes) based on dental characters. Lethaia, 34, 234-248.
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Arnason, U., Gullberg, A. and Janke, A., 2001. Molecular phylogenetics of gnathostomous (jawed) fishes: old bones, new cartilage. Zoologica Scripta, 30, 249-255.

Coates, M. I. and Sequeira, S. E. K., 2001. Early sharks and primitive gnathostome interrelationships. In P. E. Ahlberg (ed.) Major Events in Early Vertebrate Evolution: Palaeontology, Phylogeny, Genetics and Development. CRC Press, London, p241-262.

Donoghue, P. C. J., 2001. Conodonts meet cladistics: recovering relationships and assessing the completeness of the conodont fossil record. Palaeontology, 44, 65-93.
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Donoghue, P. C. J. and Smith, M. P., 2001. The anatomy of Turinia pagei (Powrie), and the phylogenetic status of the Thelodonti. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92, 15-37.

Goto, T., 2001. Comparative anatomy, phylogeny and cladistic classification of the order Orectolobiformes (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Memoirs of the Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 48, 1-100.

Maisey, J. G., 2001. A primitive chondrichthyan braincase from the Middle Devonian of Bolivia. In P. E. Ahlberg (ed.) Major Events in Early Vertebrate Evolution: Palaeontology, Phylogeny, Genetics and Development. CRC Press, London, p263-288.


Johnson, H. G., Elliott, D. K. and Wittke, J. H., 2000. A new actinolepid arthrodire (Class Placodermi) from the Lower Devonian Sevy Dolomite, East-Central Nevada. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 129, 241-266.
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Sequeira, S. E. K. and Coates, M. I., 2000. Reassessment of 'Cladodus' neilsoni Traquair: a primitive shark from the Lower Carboniferous of East Kilbride, Scotland. Palaeontology, 43, 153-172.
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McEachran, J. D. and Dunn, K. A., 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia, 1998, 271-290.

Wilson, M. V. H. and Caldwell, M. W., 1998. The Furcacaudiformes: a new order of jawless vertebrates with thelodont scales, based on articulated Silurian and Devonian fossils from northern Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18, 10-29.


de Carvalho, M. R., 1996. Higher-level elasmobranch phylogeny, basal squaleans, and paraphyly. In M. L. J. Stiassny, L. R. Parenti and G. D. Johnson (eds.) Interrelationships of Fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, p35-62.
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Janvier, P., 1996. The dawn of the vertebrates: characters versus common ascent in the rise of current vertebrate phylogenies. Palaeontology, 39, 259-287.
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McEachran, J. D., Dunn, K. A. and Miyake, T., 1996. Interrelationships of the batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). In M. L. J. Stiassny, L. R. Parenti and G. D. Johnson (eds.) Interrelationships of Fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, p63-84.
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Shirai, S., 1996. Phylogenetic interrelationships of neoselachians (Chondrichthyes: Euselachii). In M. L. J. Stiassny, L. R. Parenti and G. D. Johnson (eds.) Interrelationships of Fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, p9-34.
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Zhu, M. and Janvier, P., 1996. A small antiarch, Minicrania lirouyii gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan (China), with remarks on antiarch phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16, 1-15.


Zhu, M., 1992. Two new eugaleaspids, with a discussion on eugaleaspid phylogeny. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 30, 169-184.


Carr, R. K., 1991. Reanalysis of Heintzichthys gouldii (Newberry), an aspinothoracid arthrodire (Placodermi) from the Famennian of northern Ohio, with a review of brachythoracid systematics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103, 349-390.

Turner, S., 1991. Monophyly and interrelationships of the Thelodonti. In Chang, M.-M., Liu, Y.-H. and Zhang, G.-R. (eds.) Early Vertebrates and Related Problems of Evolutionary Biology. Science Press, Beijing, p87-119.


Hillis, D. M. and Dixon, M. T., 1989. Vertebrate phylogeny: evidence from 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. In B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, L. Brundin, H. Jornvall, L. Rutberg and H.-E. Wanntorp (eds.) The Hierarchy of Life: Molecules and Morphology in Phylogenetic Analysis. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p355-367.


Forey, P. L., 1987. The Downtonian ostracoderm Clerodus Agassiz (Osteostraci: Tremataspididae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 41, 1-30.


Forey, P. L. and Gardiner, B. G., 1986. Observations on Ctenurella (Ptyctodontida) and the classification of placoderm fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 86, 43-74.

Last updated 6th April 2011.